11th 12th

Lab List
How to write



Past Tests

Past Tests

How to write a Lab Report

Report Cover


・Meet a deadline

・Write logically

・Write clearly

・Write with your own words



* Record your observed result on your notebook. Do not scribble data on a memo pad.

* Summarize your results in graphs during the lab to examine your data .

Report Parts & Arragement   Any scientific paper or labreport consists of the followings:
1. Title
A good title is straighforward and uses suitable technical keywords. Ends with a noun.A

2. Summary


A good abstract is a concise (100 to 200 words) summary of the purpose of the report, the data presented and the author's major conclusions. Use past tense.
3. Introduction   (3-1) Objective : "Why was this study performed?"
(3-2) Theory and Past knowledge: "What knowledge already exists about this subject?"
(3-3) Hypothesis and Experimental design
4. Experimental   Be compact in lab reports! Describein detail if you have what you figured out.
5. Results

* Summarize the data from the experiments clearly in sequence without discussing their implications.
* The data should be organized into tables, figures, graphs, photographs, and so on.
* All figures and tables should have titles and should include a legend explaining any symbols.
* Figures and table should be self-explanatory; that is, the reader should be able to understand them without reffering the text.

6. Discussion   * Should not just be a restatement of the results but emphasize interpretation of the data, relating them to existing theory and knowledge.
* Speculation is appropriate, if it is so identified.
* Should explain the logic that allows you to accept or reject your original hypothesis.
* Suggestions for the improvement of esperimental design may also be included here.
7. Conclusions

* Clarify what conclusions have you got in reference to your objectives.
* You shoud not write the same conclusions described in the textbook without any suitable reasons.
* It is usually not suitable to use the word "prove"or "confirm" in your physics reports. Use "consistent to a theory" instead.

8. Opinions   * This section is not included in scientific papers but should be included in high school reports.
9. References   * List the books, websites or reports by your seniors or friends if you read them as reference.
・Theory and experiment complement eache other. Note that experimentation is not "confirming a theory." Experiment reveals the true physics of nature to within uncertainties and may invite the development of new theory (experiment cannnot cofirm theory, only fail to disprove it).(
・If you notice that all your reports are written for readers, you will find the most suitable style and expressions.


  2 Measurement, Significant Figures, Tables, Figures, Graphs  
2.1 Reading Data measure-Gif The smallest division is 1, so we must read the value to  1/10 of 1. The value we read from this measurement should be 22.2.

2.2 Significant




2.5 < X < 3.5


2.95 < X < 3.05


2.995 < X < 3.005


* Leading zeros are never significant. 
* Imbedded zeros are always significant. 
*Trailing zeros are significant only if the decimal point is specified. 
* Hint: Change the number to scientific notation. It is easier to see.


2.3 Calculation


Significant Figures



  1. Addition or Subtraction:
    The last digit retained is set by the first doubtful digit.


  1. Multiplication or Division:
    The answer contains no more significant figures than the least accurately known number.

2.4 Rounding

* Example 1: Round to 3 significant figures:
  2.3467 x 104  - - - Answer: 2.35 x 104

* Example 2: Round to 2 significant figures:
  1.612 x 103  - - - Answer: 1.6 x 103

* Example 3: Round to 2 significant figures:
  2.35 x 102  - - - Answer: 2.4 x 102

* Example 4: Round to 2 significant figures:
  2.45 x 102  - - - Answer: 2.4 x 102

* Example 5: Round to 2 significant figures:
  2.451 x 102  - - - Answer: 2.5 x 102

2.5 Tables




2.6 Figures    

2.7 Graphs